The agreement, which was a communiqué, was not a peace treaty between the peoples, although it created the fait accompli. It was replaced by the Treaty on the Definitive Regime, signed on 12 September 1990, in accordance with Germany. The Soviet Union presented to the Conference a proposal on the territories related to the mandate, in accordance with what was decided at the Yalta Conference and the Charter of the United Nations. Remember, you still have to learn what was decided (or was not decided!) The three governments took note of discussions in recent weeks in London between representatives of the United Kingdom, the United States, the Soviet Union and France to reach agreement on the methods of trial of major war criminals whose crimes do not present a particular geographical location after the Moscow Declaration of October 1943. The three governments reaffirm their intention to bring justice quickly and safely to these criminals. They hope that the London negotiations will lead to a quick agreement to that end, and they believe it is very important that the trial of these great criminals begins as soon as possible. The first list of accused will be published before September 1. Despite many disagreements, Allied leaders managed to reach some agreements in Potsdam. Negotiators thus confirmed the status of Germany demilitarized and disarmed among the four zones of the Allied occupation.
According to the protocol of the conference, there should be “complete disarmament and demilitarization of Germany”; all aspects of German industry that could be used for military purposes should be removed; all German military and paramilitary forces should be eliminated; and the manufacture of all military equipment in Germany was prohibited. In addition, German society should be redeveloped by the repeal of all discriminatory laws of the Nazi era and by the arrest and trial of Germans considered “war criminals” on the democratic model. The German education and judicial system should be purged of all authoritarian influence and democratic political parties would be encouraged to participate in the management of Germany at the local and national levels. However, the re-establishment of a German national government was postponed indefinitely and the Allied Control Commission (composed of four occupying powers, the United States, Great Britain, France and the Soviet Union) would rule the country during the interregnum. The Germans of Czechoslovakia (34% of the population of the territory of the present-day Czech Republic), known as Sudeten Germans, but also Carpathian Germans, were driven out of the Sudetenland, where they were the majority, from the linguistic enclaves in Central Bohemia and Moravia, as well as from the city of Prague. In Potsdam, little real progress has been made, beyond an agreement on fulfilling the commitments made in Yalta. The Conference agreed on the creation of a Council of Foreign Ministers representing the five main powers, continuing the preliminary work essential for peace agreements and taking on other issues that could sometimes be entrusted to the Council, by mutual agreement between the governments concerned by the Council. The establishment of the Council in question did not contradict the agreement of the Crimean conference that there should be regular meetings between the foreign ministers of the three governments.